Jesus’ further clarification focuses on the function of Spirit in this process. The re-birth is realized through “water and Spirit”. Just as the human life is the result of God’s giving his Spirit (life), the spiritual life is realized through God’s giving of the Holy Spirit to human beings. The outpouring of the Spirit during the Messianic era is a teaching of the Old Testament (Is 32: 15; Joel 2: 28-29; Jer 31: 31f; Ezek 36: 25-26). After the resurrection Jesus breathes on the disciples and they are re-created. God of Jesus is their God, Father of Jesus is their Father too (Jn 20: 17, 19-23).