For Amos, the movements of the nations are under the guidance of Yahweh (Amos 1–2), just as those of Israel. The affirmation that Israel belongs to Yahweh as much as Ethiopia belongs to Yahweh, and that Syria and Philistia had exodus event under the guidance of Yahweh, raises the question of the relation of mission to the preceding actions of God within a people and culture. Yahweh had a “hidden history” with these other peoples; yet such hidden action did not convert them to Yahwism or submerge their histories into that of Israel. Yahweh’s participation in their histories was not an exact replica of Israel’s narrative. The dominant message of Amos was that of justice, that is, righteousness as the covenantal relationship of the people in society. The identity of Israel consists in reflecting on earth the righteousness of Yahweh. When Israel fails in this, it is ready for rejection and destruction. Finally, Amos points us the dangers of a certain belief in election. God has no favourites. Election is only a call to a greater responsibility before God and for the world.
 Cf. D. E. Gowan, The Book of Amos: Introduction, Commentary and Reflections, NIB, Vol. VII, Abingdon Press, Nashville, (1996), 423.
 Cf. D. E. Gowan, The Book of Amos: Introduction, Commentary and Reflections, NIB, Vol. VII, Abingdon Press, Nashville, (1996), 425.
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